Harm Reduction Resources

Displaying 1 - 12 of 217

This report from the Comer Family Foundation provides the rationale for using syringe service programs (SEPs) in addressing the opioid crisis.

It includes a guidebook that introduces community members to the basics of SEPs, identifies the need for them in certain at-risk communities, and provides guidance on what should be considered when establishing these programs.

There is a relevant list of harm reduction resources at the end of the document. 

Response Approach:
  • Overdose prevention
  • Syringe service program / Needle exchange
Stakeholders:
  • Advocates / Peers
  • Community Coalitions
  • Community Health Officials
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Policymakers

This is a report from Shatterproof that discusses opioid use disorder (OUD) stigma and how it has exacerbated the opioid crisis. Types of stigma are highlighted as well as factors from other successful stigma campaigns (e.g. HIV, mental health). Evidence-informed interventions are presented with a focus on what Shatterproof plans to do to reduce OUD stigma. 

Response Approach:
  • Educational
  • Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
Stakeholders:
  • Addiction Treatment Providers
  • Advocates / Peers
  • Community Coalitions
  • Community Health Officials
  • Criminal Justice
  • Employers
  • First Responders
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Health Insurers
  • Hospitals
  • Law Enforcement
  • Medical
  • Pharmacies
  • Policymakers

This is a policy brief from the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) that gives an overview of the scope of the opioid crisis, discusses treatment options, and gives a summary of federal and state-level initiatives responding to this public health emergency. There is a special emphasis on the role of health education specialists in the opioid crisis.

Response Approach:
  • Cautious Opioid Prescribing
  • Educational
  • Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Overdose prevention
Stakeholders:
  • Community Coalitions
  • Community Health Officials
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Medical
  • Policymakers

This is a joint report by the National League of Cities and the National Association of Counties that is targeted to local leaders as well as state and federal officials, and which provides recommendations for solutions on the entire continuum of care.

Response Approach:
  • Comprehensive services
  • Diversion
  • Early Intervention
  • Educational
  • Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Outreach
  • Overdose prevention
  • Syringe service program / Needle exchange
Stakeholders:
  • Community Health Officials
  • Criminal Justice
  • Health Insurers
  • Law Enforcement
  • Policymakers

This is a primer and toolkit from RTI International which helps to develop, implement, and evaluate an overdose education and naloxone distribution program in a jail setting. Stakeholder collaboration and logistics are discussed in detail, and previously implemented program models and existing protocols are highlighted. 

Response Approach:
  • Educational
  • Overdose prevention
Stakeholders:
  • Criminal Justice
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Law Enforcement
  • Policymakers

Framing the opioid crisis from a public health perspective requires considering the interaction of multiple determinants, including structural factors (eg, poverty and racism), the inadequate management of pain, and poor access to addiction treatment and harm-reduction services (eg, syringe services). 

This novel ecological framework for harmful opioid use provides multiple recommendations to improve public health and clinical practice, including improved data collection to guide resource allocation, steps to increase safer prescribing, stigma-reduction campaigns, increased spending on harm reduction and treatment, criminal justice policy reform, and regulatory changes related to controlled substances.

Response Approach:
  • Cautious Opioid Prescribing
  • Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Overdose prevention
Stakeholders:
  • Community Coalitions
  • Community Health Officials
  • Criminal Justice
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Law Enforcement
  • Policymakers
Peer-reviewed Article

This is an academic paper that provides a scoping review of opioid policy interventions that the federal and state governments as well as organizations have used to address the opioid crisis, some of which include prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP), pain clinic laws, laws restricting opioid prescribing, health insurance strategies, educational interventions, and naloxone distribution. The evidence for each intervention is assessed.  

Response Approach:
  • Cautious Opioid Prescribing
  • Overdose prevention
Stakeholders:
  • Community Coalitions
  • Health Insurers
  • Hospitals
  • Medical
  • Policymakers
Peer-reviewed Article

Safe injection sites (SISs) are a harm reduction strategy that is being explored and have been implemented in some jurisdictions in Canada. 

This report summarizes the literature assessing the impact and effectiveness of SISs as a harm reduction strategy. SISs are successful in engaging high-risk and marginalized individuals who use substances, including regular and long-time users, individuals experiencing homelessness and those who were previously incarcerated.

SISs facilitate access to health and social services, reduce syringe sharing and public syringe disposal, as well as prevent on-site fatal overdoses. Establishing a SIS requires consultation of a wide range of stakeholders (e.g. the public, police, health and social services, and people who use substances) throughout the process. 

Response Approach:
  • Overdose prevention
  • Safe Injection Site
Stakeholders:
  • Advocates / Peers
  • Community Coalitions
  • Community Health Officials
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Medical
  • Policymakers

This is the abstract of an academic paper that identifies and describes all of the post-overdose responses across the United States. These interventions are delivered in various ways, such as through the emergency department, home visits, mobile outreach, and law enforcement diversion. 

Response Approach:
  • Early Intervention
  • Outreach
  • Overdose prevention
  • Post-overdose response
  • Recovery coaching
Stakeholders:
  • Advocates / Peers
  • Community Coalitions
  • Community Health Officials
  • First Responders
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Law Enforcement
  • Medical
  • Policymakers
Peer-reviewed Article

This is a peer-reviewed article on an observational intervention study of Project Lazarus, which is a community-based response to overdose deaths implemented in 74 of 100 North Carolina counties.

Response Approach:
  • Cautious Opioid Prescribing
  • Early Intervention
  • Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Overdose prevention
Stakeholders:
  • Advocates / Peers
  • Community Coalitions
  • Community Health Officials
  • Criminal Justice
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Hospitals
  • Law Enforcement
  • Medical
  • Policymakers
Peer-reviewed Article

This academic paper is a systematic review that describes the current state of the literature on community-based opioid overdose prevention programs (OOPPs), with particular focus on the effectiveness of these programs. 

The current evidence from nonrandomized studies suggests that bystanders (mostly opioid users) can and will use naloxone to reverse opioid overdoses when properly trained, and that this training can be done successfully through OOPPs.

Response Approach:
  • Educational
  • Overdose prevention
Stakeholders:
  • Advocates / Peers
  • Community Coalitions
  • Community Health Officials
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Policymakers
Peer-reviewed Article

This review of studies concentrates on establishing the effectiveness of harm reduction interventions as established in Australia and identifying gaps in knowledge.

Harm reduction interventions reviewed include needle syringe programs, supervised injecting facilities, non-injecting routes of administration, outreach, education and information, brief interventions, overdose prevention interventions, and legal and regulatory frameworks.

Findings suggest that the integration of a number of harm reduction interventions will produce the greatest impact. Harms arise from the illegal status of drugs and drug use. Thus, there are a number of harm reduction interventions that involve legislative or regulatory interventions.

Response Approach:
  • Educational
  • Overdose prevention
  • Safe Injection Site
  • Syringe service program / Needle exchange
Stakeholders:
  • Community Coalitions
  • Community Health Officials
  • First Responders
  • Harm Reduction Specialists
  • Law Enforcement
  • Medical
  • Policymakers